Wednesday, December 19, 2018

Principles on the Effect of Additives

Electrolytes: 
The lyophobic colloid stability relies upon the electrical repulsion applied by the electrical charges on their surface. On the surface of colloidal, the trace amounts of adsorbed electrolytes might be responsible for the electrical charge so the stability increases. The ions valency has a charge inverse to that of the molecule seems to decide the efficiency of the electrolyte for the coagulating of colloids
Gelatin: 
Gelatin is a hydrophilic colloid. It is decidedly charged underneath 4.7 pH. It goes about as shielding for the hydrophobic colloids. Hence, hydrophobic colloids may be changed to hydrophilic and pass on the stability.
Aluminum chloride: 
It contributes positively charged aluminum chloride ions for adsorption on the particles of negatively charged. Thus, the negative zeta potential diminishes. At the point when the adequate amount is used.


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Stability of Colloids

As a uniform dispersion of particles is critical to the therapeutic and diagnostic efficiency and the security of pharmaceutical colloid administration, stability against the co-precipitation is an essential thought. The accumulation of a hydrophilic colloid to a hydrophobic makes the hydrophilic colloid adsorb on and totally enclose the particles of hydrophobic, which at that point go up against a portion of the properties of the hydrophilic colloid. 
Occasionally in the formulations of pharmaceutical buffer salts are added to keep up a required pH for the stability of the product. Sometimes these buffers can give potential instability by insoluble salts forming with the metallic ions. This issue may happen particularly with phosphate buffers as most of the heavy metal phosphates are insoluble. If that buffer of insoluble phosphate salt from a colloidal dispersion, it may co-precipitate the particles along with it. To avoid this occurring, chelating operators might be utilized that will especially complex the metal particles, and accordingly keep them from reacting with the phosphate. Then again, buffers of non-phosphate might be substituted for phosphate buffers, when attainable, to avoid the instability.


Properties of Colloids

Colloidal dispersions show numerous properties; one of these is the scattering of a light beam directed by the dispersion of the colloid, it is called as the Tyndall effect and its extent is because of the number and size of particles present. At the point when seen under ambient light it seems translucent, overcast contingent upon the kind of colloid and the concentration of dispersion and degree of the particle. It is called as a Brownian movement because of the bombardment of colloidal particles of the medium of dispersion. If the particle size is less than the 5G it observed by the Brownian movement.
The presence of a charge on the particles of colloidal provides them electrical properties. At the point when exposed to an electrical potential, it can be compelled to move in the direction of the electrode of inverse charge. This is recognized as electrophoresis and can be utilized to separate a blend of colloidal substances, for example, proteins.


Classification of colloids

The dispersed phase of the colloidal dispersion can be classified either as a lyophilic or lyophobic, If the water is used as a solvent then these classifications are called hydrophilic and hydrophobic correspondingly.
Hydrophilic Colloids
A hydrophilic colloid molecule has a similarity to water molecules and when it dispersed in the water it becomes hydrated. Hydrated colloids increase the system viscosity, thus improving the stability by decreasing the interaction amongst the particles and their settle tendency; they may also have a net surface electrical charge. The charge signal relies on the pH of the system and the chemical properties of the colloid.
Hydrophobic colloids
A hydrophobic colloid has slight or almost no proclivity for the water and creates no modify in system viscosity. The particles may take a charge, because of the adsorption of electrolyte ions as of the solution.


What are Colloids

When two distinct substances are mixed up together thus they can mix intimately and produced two-component systems. While one component is uniformly distributed throughout the second component, the first component is known as the dispersed phase and the second is a continuous phase. It may be in the liquid, solid, or gas.
Often, a solid substance in the pharmacy dispersed in a liquid, generally in the water, and the product might have characteristics of a molecular dispersion. A colloidal dispersion based on the particle size of the dispersed solid. True solutions contain particle ions or small molecules in which the particle size is less than the 1 nm. Particle particles in colloidal dispersion are either large molecules of high molecular weight or are the sum of small molecules with 1 nm and 500 nm in size. In particle dispersion, the particle diameter is more than 500 nm. The colloids are classified as hydrophilic colloid and hydrophilic colloid.


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Pendant Drop Method of Surface Tension

In this measurement technique of surface tension, if due to the gravitational force action, small liquid droplets or gas bubbles are spherical, the larger droplets are deformed properly, because of the gravitational force action. The spherical surface area is comparable to its square radius and depends on the quantity of gravitational deformation, which is proportional to the third power radius. The Interfacial and surface tension can also be determined by pressure at high temperatures by this technique.

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Maximum Bubble Pressure Method

This method is also recognized as the bubble pressure method. This method of surface tension, the air-gas bubble is blown throughout a capillary at a continuous rate, which is deep in the test liquid. Its size is very circular shape the beginning, but decreasing its radius, this enhances the inside pressure and while the bubble size is hemisphere the pressure is maximized at this point the radius of the bubble is equal to the capillary radius.


Du nouy ring method of surface tension

Du Noüy ring method is a conventional method for measuring the surface tension. Measuring the wet properties of the interface has some little effect on this technique.  Maxim pulling is mounted on the ring from the measured surface and a platinum ring is applied in its place of the plate which is submerged in the liquid, since, the ring is drawn from the liquid, the force necessary to separate the liquid from the surface is calculated precisely, this force is associated to the liquid surface tension. Platinum rings ought to be cleaned precisely without imperfections or scratches since they can influence the result accuracy.


Wilhelmy Plate Method of Surface Tension

A thin plate is utilized to determine equilibrium interfacial and surface tension on the air-liquid or liquid-liquid interfaces. The vertically oriented plate is for the interface and the force is applied to measure the surface tension. This is a universal method which is mainly appropriated for surface tension testing at long intervals. A known perimeter is connected to vertical plate balance and because of wetting, the force is measured.


Drop weight method of measuring surface tension

Stalagmometer has been the most frequently used methods for finding out the surface tension. Numerous drops of liquid emitted from the glass capillary of stalagmometer have weighed, if the weight of liquid is known about every drop, we are able to count the leak droplets to the determination of the surface tension. The drop at the tip of the glass capillary is placed in a vertical position and has been formed gradually on the tip, The pendant drop turns to begin separation while its weight goes to the magnitude balance. The Volume depends on the characteristics of the liquid.
This method is utilized for interfacial tension determination in the form of interface edge, a liquid of density is pumped to another liquid which has different density and the drops number of every liquid in the air and the interface is calculated. alternatively, drop weight is calculated.


Determination of surface tension by capillary rise method

This is the most established method used to determine surface tension, in this method, the surface tension presence of the liquid/gas interface is taking fluid in a thin tube, generally a capillary made up of glass, and this occurrence was used to determine the surface tension of the liquid. For this cause, a thin round capillary is deep in the liquid which is already tested. If the liquid molecules have strong interaction among the capillary walls, the capillary end is deep in the solution. The height reaching the liquid in a capillary is associated with the surface tension.


Surface tension by drop number method

In this method of surface tension, a liquid drop is permitted to form on the capillary lower end, in the surface tension upper forces of tension supported to the outer periphery of the tube. The drop mass is dragged it down, when the force is balanced the drop are brakes at the bottom of the working device there is a glass in which the capillary is called a stalagmometer. The drop breaks when forces are balanced. Working equipment has a glass in the lower part with the capillary this called as a stalagmometer. Then the surface tension is detected by calculating the number of droplets for the specified liquid.


Surface Tension Measurement Methods

Surface tension is the power or force that the particles or molecules are pushed together on the fluid surface and creates a layer. Due to the particle attraction in the surface layer by the liquid bulk, it is the tension of the liquid surface film which goes to decrease the surface area. The surface tension is assessing the consolidate energy which is present in an interface. The molecules of the fluid are attracting each other and the molecule interplay in the liquid bulk is balanced by the similar attractive force in every direction.
The Surface tension can be determined by the following techniques.
  • Drop Number Method
  • Capillary Rise Method
  • Drop Weight Method
  • Spinning Drop Method
  • Wilhelmy Plate Method
  • Du Noüy Ring Method
  • Bubble Pressure Method
  • Pendant Drop Method

Isotonic Buffers

The solution will affect isotonicity in addition to any compound because there is a property of the number of particles in the isotonicity solution. The osmotic pressure of the solution can be influenced by the drug as well as by every buffer compounds which is included in formulations, however, these compounds have been added after; it is probable that the solution would not be isotonic. It might be important to include additional sodium chloride to the solution in isotonicity.


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Definition of Isotonicity

There is an event called osmosis if the use of a semi-permeable membrane to isolate the solutions of various soluble concentrations. In which the molecules of solvent traverse the membrane from the lower concentration to higher concentration to set the concentration balance. The movement drives by the pressure that is called osmotic and is governed by the particle numbers in the solution. The particle number is fully determined by the solution concentration if the solution is non-electrolyte. If the solution is electrolyte then the particles are number determined by the solution concentration and the degree of dissociation.
The clinical importance of all this is to make sure that the solution of isotonic or Iso-osmotic does not harm the tissue or while administering it does not produce pain. The solutions that have fewer particles and pouring osmotic pressure less than 0.9% called as hypotonic and those solutions contain high osmotic pressure are called as hypertonic. Painful swelling of the tissues produces, when the administration of a hypotonic solution, since the water passes by the administrative site through blood cells or tissues. As water is pulled from the biological cells in an effort to dilute the hypertonic solution, it reduces the tissues. The administering effects of the hypotonic solution are generally graver than the solution of hypertonic since the breaking cells cannot be repaired. To adjust the Isotonicity of pharmaceutical solution several methods are used. The sodium chloride equivalent method is one of the most widely used methods.


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pH Determination Methods

a pH is a short form for the potential of hydrogen. This is a numeric value that is allocated to the solution which indicates the solution that it is acidic or basic. pH ranges from 0 to 14, if the pH is less than 07, then it is defined as acidic while it greater than 7 pH then it is defined as basic and 7 pH is neither acidic nor basic. pH is the most commonly used parameter and there are numerous methods available to measure the pH of the solution.

Here are mentioned some methods used for pH measurement
pH paper or Indicator papers:
This is an easy and cheap way, which provides an indication of acidity or alkalinity, although this is not providing a precise measurement. The pH paper is coated with organic dyes which indicate with the color change. Litmus paper is also used to check the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. 
pH meters:
The pH meter is a scientific instrument it is widely used to determine the exact pH, the pH meter is determining the difference in electrical potential among an electrode and a reference electrode. It is available in small to medium sizes; easy to use, read on display, as well as the additional printer facility is available.
pH Indicators:
If we do not need to know the exact numerical pH value of the solution, but only knows that the solution is acidic or basic in such case a pH indicator is useful. A pH indicator is a compound which is contingent on the nature of the solution environment, the solution causes different colors.
If the pH of the solution is less than 2, it shows a vibrant red color, if the pH of the solution is around 5, it shows gold or yellow color.


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What is a buffer solution and how does it work

pH Determination By Colorimetric Method

A colorimetric method of pH determination is depicted to measure the pH of a liquid/ aqueous solution with the 0-01 pH unit accuracy. It is emphasized that the obvious pH measured by sulphone- phthalein indicators is not in the same amount as it gets electrometrically. The progress of glass electrodes, involved in the pH meter, has certainly made the electrometric method the most common way of pH measurement. 
Since it can be applied in a highly diluted solution, colloids, and colored solution, where the indicators are inconvenient, in addition to these particular cases, the indicators provide some benefits, and it appears to us a mistake to regard that the electrometric method is a standard, and always the most precise method. The simple comparator is used, about 0-01 pH unit of reproducibility readily gives by an indicator.


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How to Calculate LOD and LOQ

LOD as per the Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
The signal-to-noise ratio is determined by comparing the measured signals with analytes, with which the sample has low concentrations with blank specimens and the analyte can be detected reliably by establishing a minimum concentration.
LOD as per the visual evaluation:
The identification limit is calculated by analysis of analyte with recognized sample concentration and by setting up the lowest level on which the sample can be consistently detected.
LOD as per the standard deviation of response and the slope:
The LOD can be expressed as - LOD=3 X SD/Slope.
LOQ (limit of quantification)
LOQ as per the Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
The signal-to-noise ratio is determined by comparing the measured signals from the analytes, with which the sample has low concentrations with the blank sample and by setting up at least concentration on which the sample can be constantly quantified. 10:1 a normal signal-to-noise ratio.
LOQ as per the visual evaluation:
LOQ is analyzing by analysis of analyte with recognized concentration and by setting the least level of the analyte to quantify with suitable precision and accuracy.
LOQ as per the standard deviation of response and the slope:
The LOQ can be expressed as - LOQ=3 X SD/Slope.


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AccuracyCapacity Factor
Limit of Detection (LOD)
Limit of Quantitation (LOQ)
Linearity
Method Validation
Precision
Robustness
Specificity
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Factors affecting conductivity

Ohm's law can be defined as the conductivity easily by the V= IR, Where V the voltage there in the sample, I the current, and R are the resistance.  Conduct determines the ability of the material to conduct the electricity.
Factors affecting the conductivity measurements are mentioned as follows.
Size of the ions:
If the size of the ion increases the conductivity also increases, due to its inversely proportional to the size of the ions.
The concentration of the sample solution:
When the concentration of sample solution increases, the conductance can be decreased due to it is inversely proportional to the conductivity; therefore the conductivity measurement requires a diluted sample solution.
Nature of electrolyte:
Strong electrolytes totally dissociate into ions, consequently, the conductance of the solutions have high.
Number ions present in the sample solution:
It generally depends on the dissolution of the sample in ions. The quantity of ions in solution is specifically relative to the conductance.
Temperature:
The conductivity of the electrolyte increases when the temperature rises. This is due to ion mobility by raise the temperature.
The charge of the ions:

Advantages and disadvantages of conductometry

Conductometry means the measurement of the conductivity of the ionic, the conductivity meter consists of a conductivity cell made up of platinum and Wheatstone bridge circuit which use for the measurement of solution conductance.
The advantages of conductometric titrations are mentioned as follows.
  • The measurement process of conductivity is simple.
  • Broad selectivity.
  • Indicators are not required, since changes of solution conductance measured by the conductivity meter.
  • It is suitable for the turbid suspensions, diluted, and colored solution.
  • By graph plotting, the endpoint can be determined.
  • Provide accurate results with minimum errors.
  • Suitable for the analysis of weak bases, weak acids, a combination of strong & weak acids
  • Throughout the titration, the temperature is maintained constant.
The disadvantages of conductometric titrations are mentioned as follows.
  • High concentration is not possible to measure with this method.
  • A Solution is required to be diluted for measurement.
  • Less accurate than other methods.
  • Changes in salt level enhanced conductivity in the solution mask.
  • Less satisfactory than other methods.


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Applications of Conductometry

The basic function of the conductometry is to measure the efficiency of each aqueous solution in the carry of electrical current.
Applications of Conductivity are mentioned as follows. 
  • Water purity can be determined by conductometry. 
  • The solubility of sparingly soluble salts, such as sulfate, lead sulfate, and barium is determined by the conductivity. 
  • It can be used for the determination of salinity of sea water. 
  • The alkalinity of fresh water can be determined by conductometry 
  • It can be used for the determination of the ionic product of water. 
  • It can be used for the conductometric titration. 
  • It can be used for the determination of chemical equilibrium in ionic reactions. 
  • The purity of de-ionized and distilled water can determine by conductometry. 
  • It can be used for the determination of the basicity of organic acids. 
  • Used in the quantitative analysis of the compounds. 
  • It can be used for the determination of deuterium ion concentration in water. 


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Different Types of Conductometric Titration

Conductivity measures the ability of the solution to transport the electrical current, adding an element to the solution (Base) is the process of conductometric titration. Change in conductivity or ions which change the concentration of substances. for example, the solution conductivity decreases if the hydrochloric acid (HCL) is titrated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), It happens on the basis that the fast-moving ions are replaced by ions which move slow.
The type of conductive titration is mentioned as follows.
  • Acid-base titration
  • Precipitation titration
  • Replacement titration
  • Redox titration (oxidation-reduction)
  • Complexometric titration


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