Saturday, October 19, 2019

Effect of pH on HPLC columns

The proper use of HPLC columns is of utmost significance for the life span of a column. Generally, columns of reversed-phase chromatography is stable within a pH range of 2 to 8. If you determine a pH value, the measurement should be performed before mixing with organic solvents in aqueous media. Nowadays HPLC columns are available to use outside that pH range. However, if the pH range of the mobile phase is outside the pH range of 2 to 8, ensure the seller's product information before using silica-based columns.
As the pH of the mobile phase/buffer/sample is considered as a parameter in RP-HPLC, not only its effects on retention time but also the variation in asymmetry and efficiency of the chromatograph need to be considered. The stationary phase (column) is affected by pH. At very basic pH i.e. below pH 02.00, the bonded stationary phase will be stripped of the silica support. Silica at high pH i.e. above pH 08.00 will be damaged by self-dissolution.
The separation of basic molecules at low pH is often recommended in RP-HPLC since symmetric peak shape and maximum column efficiency are usually the result. However, analysis at low pH (below pH-3) is not possible due to of instability of solute or band-spacing issues. In such cases, the pH between 04.00 to 08.00 or higher is used to separate. Even though working on the intermediate pH can generate useful band spacing for ionizable molecules, difficulties with retention reproducibility and band size may occur as a result of partial ionization of the basic molecules.

Effect of pH on HPLC analysis

The method development in reversed-phase HPLC involves the optimization of different types of column and mobile phase parameters. The separation of acid and base molecules the pH plays a significant role in determining the selectivity, retention time, and in controlling the methods reproducibility and ruggedness. Below are some points on how the pH of the buffer/ mobile phase affects your columns and analysis of HPLC can help you quickly determine the best mobile phase conditions for an analyte.
Peak shape:
The pH of the buffer/mobile phase affects the peak area and retention time of the component as it affects the ionization state. The mobile phase pH can affect chromatography in many ways. Depending on the molecule being analyzed, pH can affect peak shape, retention, and selectivity. With a considerable non-polar analyte, the effect of pH will usually be unimportant for retention and resolution. In basic molecules, if the specific pH has not been determined based on the requirement of specific molecules, the silica surface silanols are protonated, reducing interactions with the basic molecules that cause the tailings.
Column stability and durability:
The pH of the buffer/mobile phase affects the life span and stability of the silica-based column. Most chromatographers use HPLC columns between the pH ranges from 3.00 – 08.00, however column degradation occurs within this pH range through two mechanisms.
Column degradation at higher pH:
The pH 07.00 or higher is the main cause of the dissolution of silica in the aqueous mobile phase. The dissolution rate will be influenced by numerous column parameters including bonding type and silica used in the column packing. The rate of dissolution of silica is also affected by many mobile phase parameters, such as organic composition, operating temperature and buffering strength.
Column degradation at lower pH:
At low pH (below 03), the acid hydrolysis of the bonded phase the surface of silica results in a change in the retention time of the component. Reducing pH increases the rate of hydrolysis.
The reproducible separation of the molecules is acquiring by choosing the pH of the mobile phase that gives good selectivity and retention, hence a column gives good durability and peak shape at the required pH.

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Effect of pH in reversed-phase chromatography

The pH of the mobile phase in reversed-phase HPLC is an important factor, it can affect the peak shape as well as the retention time of the molecule as it affects the ionization state of the molecule, and therefore the chemistry of the interactions in the HPLC column. It is therefore important that to maintain the correct ph for the compound that may be affected by the pH change of the mobile phase and buffer. The triethylamine and trifluoroacetic acid are common mobile phase modifiers, but they do not maintain pH, you need buffer solution for this. They resist a change in pH when small amounts of acid or alkali are added. A buffer solution contains a mixture of a weak base and its conjugate acid (or a weak acid and its conjugate base).
The effect of the pH of the mobile phase in high-performance liquid chromatography can influence the selectivity, retention time, and method ruggedness.
Minute changes in the mobile phase pH can also have a dramatic effect on the selectivity of weakly ionizable analytes.
The retention time of the analyte:
When the pH of the mobile phase changes a dramatic change occurs in the retention time of acidic and basic analytes. When the ionization of these molecules is changed it is often the result of different interactions amongst the column and the molecules.
Method Ruggedness:

Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Selection of Mobile Phase in HPLC

The mobile phase is the most significant parameter in HPLC and all types of chromatography analysis. The type of mobile phase used can have a huge impact on separation as well as the retention time. This may suppress or promote the ionization of the molecules that are analyzed. The selection of an appropriate mobile phase is the very key step in the chromatographic method development.
The essential requirement for the mobile phase is to dissolve the components to the appropriate concentrations to detect it. There are different types of high-performance liquid chromatography and they need different types of mobile phase requirements. In which the stationary phase is fixed, while the sample mixture carries by the mobile phase composition, which can be varied as per the requirement. The speed of the molecules in the mobile phase is managed by the importance of their interactions with the stationary phase / mobile phase. Due to differences in factors, like the strength of components richness for the stationary phase and the solubility in the mobile phase, several compounds will travel quicker than others, therefore make it easy to separate the compounds within that sample mixture.
The selection of the mobile phase in HPLC separation modes are as follows.
  1. Reversed-phase chromatography (RP-HPLC) separates the analytes based on nonpolar interactions and involves a polar mobile phase and a nonpolar stationary phase. In which the more polar compound is eluted first from the HPLC column. Usually, the mobile phase in RP-HPLC consists of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF), propanol, and water sometimes buffer (e.g. acetate buffer, phosphate buffer).
  2. NP-HPLC uses a nonpolar mobile phase and a polar stationary phase for the separation of polar components of the sample. In normal phase chromatography, the mobile phase is usually used with non-polar solvents, for example, hexane, iso-octane, and heptane, with slightly more polar solvents like isopropanol, chloroform or ethyl-acetate. If the nonpolar solvent quantity increases in the mobile phase, the retention time of the analytes will increase.
  3. The separation in ion-exchange chromatography is depending on ionic interactions between ionic and polar molecules; hence, the aqueous salt solution is commonly used as mobile phases. The medium amounts of water-miscible polar organic solvents like HPLC grade methanol can be added to the buffer. The strength and selectivity of the solvent can be adjusted by the managing of the buffer, pH, and salt concentrations. In IEC, the retention time of a molecule depends on the affinity of various molecule ions and counter ions for the charged sites on the surface of the stationary phase and several other parameters of a solution containing concentration and strength.
  4. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is used to separate the analytes according to their molecular size it is also recognized as gel permeation chromatography when the mobile phase is an organic solvent. The choice of the mobile phase in the SEC is based on its ability to dissolve and maintain a constant viscosity at operating temperature. The choice of the mobile phase is dependent on its ability to dissolve samples and maintain consistent viscosity at working temperature. Mobile Phases for size exclusion chromatography contain the high polar solvents like alcohol, DMSO, acetone, and water are used, and also of salts the ionic strength is maintained.

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What is the Role of the Mobile Phase in HPLC?

Chromatography in chemistry is the science of separating mixtures. To do this, the sample goes through two distinct phases, named the mobile phase and the stationary phase. In which, the stationary phase remains fixed, while the mobile phase flows from the system. The mobile phase is the liquid or gas that runs through the system separates the molecules in the stationary phase at different rates. The stationary phase is either the solid or liquid (e.g. Column, silica, paper, TLC plate) at which molecules are to be separated.
The mobile phase is an important parameter in the chromatographic separation process, and many of its other properties are significant in HPLC analysis. The mobile phase is a developing liquid or solution combination that travels up to the stationary phase, moving samples with it. The analytes of the sample solution separate, based on how much they adsorb onto the stationary phase versus how easily they dissolve in the system of the mobile phase. This is an important role of the mobile phase in HPLC and other chromatography. The retention time of each molecule will contrast, it depends on the interaction between the stationary phase, molecules, and solvents are being used in the analysis. As the sample travels through the HPLC column, it interacts at different rates between the two phases, mainly due to different polarities in the molecules. Generally in RP-HPLC consists of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF), propanol, and water sometimes buffer (e.g. Acetate buffer, phosphate buffer) used as a mobile phase.
The mobile phase of HPLC should have the following important features to meet the essential objectives:
  • The sample to be analyzed has to be soluble in the mobile phase.
  • The components of the solvent system have to be non-toxic and non-hazardous.
  • The mobile phase must be inert; they should not react with the sample components and the stationary phase.
  • When it passes through the detector it should not give the response.
  • The mobile phase should be inexpensive and make the proportion of solvents used cost-effectively viable.

What is the Mobile Phase in HPLC?

The mobile phase or solvent system used in high-performance liquid chromatography is selected based on the type of HPLC. The reversed-phase HPLC typically consists of an organic solvent and a water/aqueous solution/buffer in the mobile phase. To control retention and peak size, buffers and other additives may be present in the aqueous phase while our analysis of ionizable molecules. In RP-HPLC is the weakest solvent is water. Since water is the most polar, this repels hydrophobic components in the stationary phase compared to any other solvent and therefore retention times of components are longer. Organic modifiers are added, and since these are less polar, the molecules are no longer powerfully repelled in the stationary phase, it will use less time, and consequently elute earlier. This is the reason it is chromatographically stronger as it reduces retention time by accelerating elution. If the increasingly more organic solvent is used in the mobile phase, the retention time of the compound will reduce. The choice solvent might be one of the important parameters in an HPLC, because of the impact it can have on the selectivity. Actually, for optimizing resolution the selectivity can be the most effective tool.
In RP-HPLC, the selected organic solvent must be miscible with water and prioritize the low viscosity mobile phase to minimize dispersion and keep low backpressure. Water is usually a base solvent and other organic solvents such as acetonitrile, methanol, etc. are added in as per the required proportions. The pH adjusted buffers (e.g. Phosphate, acetate) is also used in the HPLC mobile phase to adjust the separations of ionizable compounds. Ion-pairing reagents also improve the separation selectivity of charged molecules by enhancing the RT on hydrophobic bonding phases.

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