Friday, May 31, 2019

Harmful effects of fast food on health

The food which does not have nutritional value can be considered fast food, sausages, burgers, street food, noodles, bakery products, and candy, can be classified as junk food. Due to having a high-calorie content, salts, and fat in junk food that can lead to health issues. Nowadays, most people wish to eat fast food as it tastes better than homemade food, cheap, quick and convenient, to those who have a busy lifestyle. Even the students also prefer this kind of food during the lunch break. We consider that the busy, life and living modern is to be one of the top reasons for eating junk food.
Here are some of the harmful effects of fast food are mentioned pointwise.
  1. Obesity is a common harmful effect by eating fast food, it contains added sugar, fats and calories which contribute to weight gain.
  2. The high amount of sodium is also harmful to people who suffer from blood pressure. Since it can increase blood pressure and put pressure on your heart and heart system.
  3. If you are habitual to eating chips, noodles, pizzas, burgers, etc. Which contains a high amount of spices and carbohydrate and are due to their excessive use causes diarrhea, pancreatic ulcer, etc.
  4. The packed products such as chocolates, pastries, and cakes, etc. are rich in flour, sugar, fat, butter, etc. This raises the accumulation of fat, which leads to obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, anemia, diabetes, etc.
  5. The cold drinks have acid, carbon, sugar, and preservatives. These ingredients decrease the phosphorus and calcium in the bones that lead to osteoporosis.
  6. When eating healthy food, the body gets glucose, it regulates glucose insulin. But the eating of fast food affects the metabolic level and the body is unable to use insulin which causes the risk of diabetes.
  7. The trend of eating junk food in the teenage category is very high. This leads to an imbalance of the hormones of the body.
  8. By eating junk food, the digestive system becomes weak, and this causes problems of stomach disturbances.
  9. The high amounts of refined sugar in fast food reduces metabolic rate. The fast-food reduces the level of protein and carbohydrate which is the reason peoples get hungry and eat more fast food.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Junk Food

Effects of fast food on health

Fast food is food that can be prepared and served faster than homemade food. Nowadays, fast food is popular all over the world because food is convenient, cheap and tastes good. Junk food has both positive and negative effects on human health. Since, fast food is often prepared with cheap ingredients like, high-fat meat, added sugar, refined grains, and fat which is harmful to us. This type of food contains more sodium content, which is used as a preservative and makes food satisfying and tasty.
No food is bad for health, but there are some foods that you should not try to do regularly. Since, junk food contains more amounts of trans fat, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol, this is the reason why it should not be eaten often. If you regularly eat fast food, then you may have to face obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, and many more health problems. Here are mentioned some harmful effects of fast food on human health.
Effects of fast food on the Integumentary system (skin, hair, and nails):
The unhealthy foods you eat can affect the integumentary system, which includes the appearance of your skin, problems with hair and nails.
Effects of sugar and fat:
The several fast food meals contain added sugar that means it gives extra calories to the body which causes obesity.
Effects of sodium:
The high amount of sodium is also harmful to people who suffer from blood pressure. Since it can increase blood pressure and put pressure on your heart and heart system.
Effects on the respiratory system:
Excess calorie intake from fast food can cause weight gain and obesity. Due to obesity, the risk of respiratory problems, including shortness of breath and asthma are increasing.
Effects of fast food on the reproductive system:
The ingredients are used to prepare junk food can affect reproductive ability. The processed food used to prepare fast food, which contains phthalates and that can disrupt the activity of hormones.
Effects of fast food on the skeletal system:
Fast food contains high amounts of fat and sugar, which causes obesity, and it can lead to complications to muscles and bone density.
Effects of fast food on the digestive systems:
People with fast food addiction can have digestive problems. Since this type of food is deeply fried, so, oil gets accumulated in the stomach, which can lead to acidity. While the digestive system breaks such types of foods (junk or fast food), then carbs are released in the bloodstream in the form of glucose, which increases the blood sugar level, which leads to diabetes.

Fast food and obesity

Fast food is food that can be made fast and easily. This type of food contains high calorie, but the value of nutrition is low. It often contains a high amount of fat and sugar, rather than providing several vitamins, minerals, and nutrients, which are significant for good health. Due to the increased calorie intake and insufficient physical activity are the major factors of obesity. The high-calorie intake in junk food is harmful to obesity and obese persons. However, many people are choosing to eat fast food because it is fast and easy to make, tasty, cheap, convenient, and it meets our base requirements.
It is mentioned in some points that why fast food is associated with obesity.
Good taste and time-saving: 
Because of being readily available, good in taste, save time compared to homemade food, that is why people consume more fast food. This means that people are eating more junk food instead of a healthy diet, which leads to an abnormal weight gain.
Available at lower cost: 
People cannot be stopped by eating fast food; one of the main reasons for this is to be available at a low cost. A diet of 1000 calories in fast food has a very low cost compared to a 1000 calorie diet. It is more economical than going for a healthy diet and is one of the major causes of obesity among people of lower and middle-income class.
Convenience: 
Nowadays fast food restaurants and street food are readily available near you. You can always find near your home and easily delivered or bring food to your home. Many students and employees prefer this kind of food during the lunch break since this is a suitable alternative compared to making healthy food at home. This kind of lifestyle also causes of obesity and health issues.
Varieties of fast food: 
There are large varieties of fast foods are easily available, so people like to eat junk food, which leads to obesity. Snacks, burger, fried foods, pizza, ice-cream, noodles, cold drinks, chips, cakes, and chocolate, are some examples of food which can cause calories increases.
Unhealthy ingredients:
Most fast foods have high amounts of carbohydrates, fats, and sugar. This implies that you are taking excessive amounts of undesirable calories, which increases body weight and causes obesity.
To reduce your risk of obesity, it is essential to decrease eating of this kind of unhealthy processed foods and change them with healthy food such as nuts, fruits, whole grains, vegetables, and legumes.


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What are the types of fast food?

Fast food is food that can be quickly prepared and served. Junk food is well-liked food, since it is cheap, tastes good and convenient. But, it often prepared with added sugar and fats, refined grains, a high amount of sodium, calories, carbohydrate, fat, raw materials and preservatives instead of nutritious and healthy components like vegetables, whole grains, and fresh fruits. There are many types of fast food are available in the market. It depends on what location will be in case of fast food types, what the local people like and what kind of ingredients can be obtained.
Fast food or junk food is the cause of obesity, digestive problems, and some other health problems and usually consists of the following categories.
High in calories
High in sodium
High in fat
High in simple carbohydrates
High in sugar
High in saturated and trans fat
The various types of fast food are mentioned here.
Bacon
Baguette
Bhelpuri
Biscuit
Burgers
Burrito
Cakes
Candies
Cheese Stuff
Cheeseburger
Chicken Baguette
Chips
Chocolates
Coffee
Cold drinks
Cookie
Donuts
Fried chicken
Fried foods
Fried Stuff
Hamburger
Hot dog
Ice Cream
Movie Theater Popcorn
Muffin
Noodles
Onion ring
PaavBhaaji
Pancake
Pizza
Potato Chips
Pretzel
Samosa
Sandwiches
Sausage
Snacks
Soft Drinks
Street Food
Sweets
Taco
White Castle Sliders, etc.


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What is fast food?

The word fast food generally refers to foods that people intend to consume quickly, it is easy to serve and cheaper alternatives for cooking food at home. The meaning of fast food is that food is not good for health at all. Due to lack of nutrition, it is also harmful to the body. Most of the fast food is full of salinity, sugar, bad cholesterol, and fat at high levels, which are unhealthy. They lack nutrients which can lead to constipation and some digestive disorders. Due to good taste and easy cooking, fast food has gained more popularity and most of the people are depending on it due to their busy routine.
There are several kinds of junk food are available in the marketplace, that are usually fried or it contains a high amount of oil. Junk food can fill your stomach but it can lead to many health issues. If you eat too much fast food, it may be injurious to your heart as well as your digestive system. It has been positive as well as negative effects on health. The fast food we eat that contains sugar, sodium, carbohydrate, calories, fat and some other elements which affect the health. Rather than eating healthy the peoples prefer fast food because of the good taste and are easily available.


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Advantages and Disadvantages of Junk Food

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

What is authentic material in pharmaceuticals?

Authentic materials are eligible for estimating purity and identity. It is also known as a reference standard. The chromatographic purity of authentic material should be just 80% or more. It doesn’t utilize in the quantitative assays, however, usually are used in order to set up chromatographic system relevance and for spectroscopic assays as identifier comparator. Authentic materials are typically accessible in little sums and are much of the time acquired by preparative chromatography. 



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Definition of Reference Standard
What is Analytical Reference Standard?
What is the working standard in pharma?
Limit of Detection (LOD)
Limit of Quantitation (LOQ)
Linearity


What is working standard in pharma?

Laboratory standard, In-house standard, and secondary standard are the names of the working standard. It can be utilized for the regular analytical evaluation of active pharmaceutical ingredients or dosage forms in conditions which high purity analytical reference standard is tricky to obtain. The working standard is typically specific to pharmaceutical drug development phase in which it is utilized. The purity of the working standard is usually very high; however, an analytical reference can be assigned without the same rigidity applied to the qualification of the reference standard. Working standards are frequently used widely in place of Analytical reference standard to preserve the material. Preferably, the working standard must be prepared by the normal synthetic route used to manufacture active pharmaceutical ingredients and should be subjected to further purification, if necessary.

What is Analytical Reference Standard?

The analytical reference standard also called as the gold standard or primary standard. The analytical reference standard is defined as a batch of drug substance; its purity is established independently and accepted in the context of further standards. An analytical reference standard is used to calculate the active ingredients in the drug product or drug substance. Content is the highest accuracy with > 99.5% that can be gotten with sensible effort. The obtained material is fully characterized to assuring its quality, identity, accuracy, and strength, Structural identities are done through separate spectral interpretation and on the weight basis, every impurity determined to establish full mass balance liability. In addition, the inherent stability of the material should be fully understood, After all, the analytical reference standards have to complete all the identities purity, and assay.

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Definition of Reference Standard

The reference standard is generally defined as a certified substance or material, provided by a licensed body, which shows one or additional properties that are well-established, that it can be used to calibrate any device, assign esteems to materials and assessment of a measurement method. Generally, there are three categories of reference standards in pharmaceutical sciences analytical reference standards, authentic materials, and working standards. 


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Tuesday, May 21, 2019

What is a balanced diet

What is a balanced diet as per the nutritionists, for the balanced diet approximate Men require 2320 cal/day and Female require 1900 cal/day. It consists of essential nutrition, amino acids from protein, fluid, vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, water and enough calories to the body. Every nutrient has a special role to play in maintaining different body functions. These nutrients are derived through a grouping of the different food groups like pulses and cereals, vegetables and fruits, fats and oils meat and dairy products. A healthy diet supports desires energy and provides the required nutrition.
Carbohydrates: carbohydrates can be hard to digest, but as per nutritionists they are playing an important role in a healthy diet. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy to your body. Carbohydrates are obtained in plant foods. It also obtains from sugars and dairy product, grains, bread, cereals, fruits, rice and vegetables, almost the half calories from the day provided from the carbohydrates to your body.
Proteins: Proteins are complex and big molecules, which play many roles in our body. They play most of the job in cells growth and are required for the function, structure and regulation body’s organs and tissues. Total 30 to 35% of your diet must consist of protein in the form of meat, pulses, leafy greens, fish, nuts, seeds, dairy product, grains, pulses, milk, and eggs.
Fats: Fats are necessary to support cell growth and give the body energy. They also assist to protect organs and help to keep the body warm. Fats have also helped the body to absorb nutrients and produce some important hormones. Fats provide necessary fatty acids, which not made by our body and it acquires from the food. The important fatty acids are linolenic acid. Is the important to control blood clotting, inflammation, and development of brain and fat, maintaining our Healthy skin and hair. The sources of fats are fish, dairy product, meat, fats and oil, nuts and seeds, etc. Obtain.
Vitamins and Minerals: Vitamins are chemicals that naturally occurs its necessary for our health. Our food is the major source that provides vitamins to our body. Some vitamins like vitamin D is obtained from sunlight and biotin and vitamin K obtain by microorganism produced into the intestine. The major vitamins are The B Vitamins, Folate, Niacin, Thiamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid.
This vitamin A is very important for our eye. It's very good for night vision, and the vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin plays vital in the activity of metabolic. They help to make energy. The group of B vitamins is also concerned to make RBC that carries oxygen throughout our body. Body tissues keep by vitamin C it also helps to resist the infections; vitamin D is required for the strong bone which is absorbed from the sunlight. Vitamin E is keeping your cells and tissues from any damage and Vitamin K is for blood clotting.
The Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, and Sulfur are the major minerals and that is essential to stay healthy, develop and grow of our body. The body uses the minerals for different functions perform. Some minerals are used for maintaining a normal heartbeat and make hormones.
So for keeping healthy, you need to eat a balanced diet that covers all essential nutrients and vitamins.

Disadvantages of Sugar

Sugar known as monosaccharide’s it includes fructose, dextrose, and galactose. Sugar is the most commonly used by every home to make it from sweet dishes, sweet syrup, tea and many more but sugar is a type of sweet poison that leads to the many diseases.
Let's take a look at how this happens. 
  1. Sugar is a major cause of diabetes.
  2. Sugar increases blood pressure.
  3. Sugar also increases the amount of triglyceride in the body.
  4. Sulfur is used in the process of sugar formation.
  5. Sulfur used to make crackers.
  6. Sulfur is a very heavy metal and once the sulfur goes into the body, it does not fall outside easily from the body.
  7. Sugar increases cholesterol. An increase in cholesterol causes a heart attack.
  8. Sugar causes the excessive weight of the body's weight, and therefore it suffices for obesity.
  9. The sweetness of sugar is called sucrose, it’s difficult to digest.
  10. Chemicals are used in sugar processing that can be hazardous to the body.



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What is High Blood Pressure or Hypertension


Hypertension is a clear risk factor for cardiovascular disease that affects people worldwide. Changes in lifestyle are an effective way to Prevent and control hypertension. Hypertension awareness, Treatment and control have improved tremendously during the 21St Century. Despite these favorable trends like increasing obesity, acting and growing populations, many people with hypertension are unaware of their condition and much more are untreated or inadequately treated. The urban population is habituated to different conditions such as alcohol consumption, chewing tobacco and smoking. The major differentiating factor which lets us know that hypertension exists more in the urban area is the least level of exercise among the population due to a sedentary lifestyle and eating and drinking habits. The stress level is found in some peoples. As per the reports more than 2.5 million deaths from cardiovascular disease in India, 66% because of coronary supply rout illness and 33% for stroke. Hypertension pensiveness has been expanded from 2% to 25% among urban inhabitants over the most recent six decades and among the country occupant in India, it has been expanded 2% to 15%. To prevent and control hypertension you have to change in your lifestyle as well as eat healthily and take benefits of doing Yoga is the best solution to control and prevent your blood pressure. Only yoga offers complete relaxation to your mind and body. Yoga & pranayama gives good benefits for those suffering from hypertension or low/high blood pressure.

Normal range of Blood Pressure and Classification of Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure                     SBP (mm HG)          DBP (mm HG)
Classification       
Normal                                    <120                                       <80
Prehypertension                   120-139                                  80-89
Stage 1                                     140-159                                  90-99
Stage 2                                    ≥ 160                                      ≥ 100




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What is a normal blood sugar level

A blood glucose test checks the amount of sugar in your blood. Glucose is a main source of energy for our body before we start about the glucose level in the blood first we know about the difference in glucose and sugar. The sugar is the common name for sweet carbohydrates that is dissolved in the water. Carbohydrate means food made only with oxygen; hydrogen and carbon, there are different types of sugars the one of our body uses most is known as glucose. The sources of other types of sugar in our body like lactose from milk and fructose from fruits are the convert into glucose in our bodies then we can use them as an energy source.
Clinical significance of blood glucose:
The amount of glucose level into our blood changes during day and night. The blood glucose level change depending upon how much, when, and what you have eaten and had whether you exercised or not. A precise measurement of glucose into the body fluid is important in the measurement and diagnosis of diabetes, adrenal dysfunction, hypoglycemia, and other various conditions.
Normal Values for blood sugar level:

70-110 mg/dl – Fasting 


Monday, May 20, 2019

Factors affecting Rf value in paper chromatography


Paper chromatography is a chromatographic method of separation in which the flow of solvent separates the substance by capillary action on the specially designed paper (cellulose filter paper) that acts as a stationary phase. The quantity of each analyte of the sample mixture can be determined using retention factors (Rf). Retention factors are helpful in the comparison between the chromatograms.
Here are some factors that affect the Rf value of paper chromatography.
  • The solvent system
  • Composition of the mobile phase
  • The working temperature of the system
  • The quality of the paper used
  • The distance through which the solvent runs
  • The quality and nature of solvents used
  • The polarity of components
  • The pH of the solvent or mobile phase
  • The thickness of the stationary phase
  • Saturation or equilibrium of the mobile phase
  • The concentration of the sample or spot
  • Techniques applied for sample



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Factors affecting retention time in gas chromatography

he GC is a potent analytical technique of separation of volatile components, separation of the analytes depends on the interaction strengths of each compound with the stationary phase. Each component is separated from the column having a specific retention time (RT), the Retention time of a compound depends on several factors such as conditions of the analysis, temperature, and type of column used, dimensions of the column, and degradation of the sample, etc. Here are mentioned some factors affecting the retention time in GC.
The volatility of the component:
Compared to non-volatile components, the volatile component travels rapidly through the GC column. The volatility is related to the size and boiling point of molecules. This means that smaller size molecules have short RT as compared to the larger molecules.
The polarity of the component:
The polarity of compounds is associated with the polarity of the stationary phase. When the stationary phase and the polarity of the compound are parallel, the RT increases. This happens as the compound has more interaction with a stationary phase.
The amount of sample injected:
The amount of the sample does not affect retention time. If the sample is injected in high quantity, then the peak shows a tailing rather than asymmetrical shape.
The amount of stationary phase:
The Retention factor (k value) of the analytes is associated with the amount of stationary phase. If the more stationary phase exists, the retention factor is larger and thus the retention time will be more.
The column length:
A longer length of column usually increases the retention times as well as it improves the separation.
The Column temperature:
The high temperature of the GC column is the result of low retention time with poor separation.
Flow rate and type of carrier gas:

Hydrogen gas gives a short time of analysis, as compared to other carrier gases (Helium) used in the gas chromatography. A high flow rate can also reduce the retention time of the component.
 

Factors affecting Rf value in TLC chromatography

During the thin layer chromatography, the retention factor of a chemical is the calculation of how distant the plate is taken in response to the movement of the solvent. Because the movement of chemical relies on how far the solvent travel is, we determine the retention factor values relative to the degree of solvent travels. The Rf for a particular chemical is the vertical distance traveled by a chemical from the place where it was originally spotted on the TLC plate, divided by the length traveled.
Retention factor or RF value is the difference in the movement rate of analytes in chromatography is due to various factors, some of them are mentioned here.
Thin Layer Chromatography Plate (TLC Plate):
TLC the plate can affect the Rf value of the component mixtures, it can be layered with different kinds of absorbent solids; Most often silica or alumina is used. Because the Rf value depends on the relative affinity of analytes for the absorbent, modifying the absorbent can change the retention factor significantly. Also, the thickness of the absorbents layer and uniformity may vary from plate to plate. These factors also cause to change retention factor values for components.
The polarity of the mobile phase:
Solvent polarity is related to Rf values in various solvents in the linear form of various nitro compounds. The differences in the solvent polarity can be affecting the Rf value.
Solvent impact on retention factors:
Since the solvent carries the analyte up the TLC plate, the solvent used also will affect the value of the component retention factor. A solvent which has a strong interaction for a specific analyte will more easily remove and carry that component forward in a certain period. The solvent mixture also has effects on the Rf value which is depending on the proportion of each solvent.
Temperature:
There may be slight changes in the temperature of the solvent and the plate can affect Rf value in chromatography, although the working temperature needs to monitor.
The technique of sample applying:
The technique of sample applying can also change the retention factor, the more amount of the sample may result in a large and diffuse band of component moving up the plate, makes it obscure to calculate the distance correctly. In some cases, several other factors can affect the retention factor in chromatography.


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